初中英语难点“被动”语态用法全攻略

被动语态的使用情况

(1)当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,这时往往不用by 短语。

如:

“Mr. White, the cup was broken after class. ”

怀特先生,这只茶杯是下课后被打碎的。

(2)突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作的执行者,用by 短语。

如:

These records were made by John Denver.

这些报道是被约翰·丹佛做的。

被动语态中谓语动词的基本构成

be + done

被动语态的构成

(1)一般现在时:am / is / are + done。

如:

①People grow rice in the south of the country.

→Rice is grown in the south of the country.

稻米在这个国家的南部被种植。

②The school doesn’t allow us to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher.

→We are not allowed to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher.

我们不被允许在没有老师的情况下进入化学实验室。

(2)一般过去时:was / were + done。

如:

①They agreed on the building of a new car factory last month.

→The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month.

建立一个新的汽车工厂在上个月被一致同意。

②The students didn’t forget their lessons easily.

→Their lessons were not easily forgotten.

他们的功课没有被轻易遗忘。

(3)一般将来时:will + be done。

如:

①They will send cars abroad by sea.

→Cars will be sent abroad by sea.

汽车通过海路被送到国外。

②She will take care of theses children.

→These children will be taken care of by her.

那些孩子将由她照顾。

(4)现在完成时:have / has + been + done。如:

①Someone has told me the sports meeting might be put off.

→I have been told the sports meeting might be put off.

我已经被告诉会议可能会被延迟。

②He has brought his book here.

→His book has been brought here.

他的书被带到了这里。

(5)含有情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+ be+ done。

如:

①You must hand in your compositions after class.

→Your compositions must be handed in after class.

你的作文必须在下课之后被上交。

②He can write a great many letters with the computer.

→A great many letters can be written with the computer by him.

很多信能够被他用计算机写。

练一练

1. More chances to learn from each other ______ for students by working in groups.

A. provide B. will provide

C. was provided D. are provided

【点拨】第①步:分析句意。通过小组合作,将会为学生们______更多互相学习的机会。第②步:分析选项。provide一般现在时;will provide一般将来时;was provided一般过去时的被动语态;are provided一般现在时的被动语态。第③步:分析句子结构。谓语动词“provide”与主语“More chances”之间为动宾关系,应用被动语态。主语为“More chances”,谓语动词用复数形式。故选D。

2. Many people ______ that there would be a snowstorm next week.

A. tells B. told C.were told D. is told

【点拨】第①步:分析句意。很多人______下周将有一场暴风雪。第②步:分析选项。tells一般现在时;told一般过去时;were told一般过去时的被动语态;is told一般现在时的被动语态。第③步:分析句子结构。谓语动词“tell”与主语“Many people”之间为动宾关系,且宾语从句时态为过去将来时,所以用一般过去时的被动语态。故选C。

3. Food safety is very important. So some rules______to stop people from polluting food.

A. should make B. should be made

C.was made D. has been made

【点拨】第①步:分析句意。食品安全非常重要。所以一些措施______来阻止人们污染食物。第②步:分析选项。should make一般现在时;should be made含有情态动词的被动语态;was made一般过去时的被动语态;has been made现在完成时的被动语态。第③步:分析句子结构。谓语动词“make”与主语“rules”之间为动宾关系,应用被动语态。根据句意可知,此处是指“规则应该被制定”,应用情态动词“should”。故选B。

4. I plan to build an unusual house. It ______ out of waste materials.

A. is built B. has built

C.will be built D. builds

【点拨】第①步:分析句意。我计划建造一个不同寻常的房子。它______由废弃材料制成。第②步:分析选项。is built一般现在时的被动语态;has built现在完成时;will be built一般将来时的被动语态;builds一般现在时。第③步:分析句子结构。谓语动词“build”与主语“It”之间存在动宾关系,应用被动语态。根据句意可知此处表示还未发生的事情,应用一般将来时。故选C。

5. In order to make our hometown more beautiful, lots of trees______in the past three years.

A. are planted B. were planted

C. have been planted D. will be planted

【点拨】第①步:分析句意。为了使我们的家乡更漂亮,很多树______在过去的三年里。第②步:分析选项。are planted一般现在时的被动语态;were planted一般过去时的被动语态;have been planted现在完成时的被动语态;will be planted一般将来时的被动语态。第③步:分析句子结构。谓语动词“plant”与主语“trees”之间存在动宾关系,应用被动语态。根据时间状语“in the past three years”可知应用现在完成时。故选C。

6. Hurry up! Once the concert starts, nobody ______(allow) to enter the concert hall.

【点拨】第①步:观察语境,找到关键词“Hurry up!”可首先判断出本题的时态是一般现在时;第②步:分析语境“nobody”与“allow”之间为动宾关系,应用被动语态。故填is allowed。

7. The speech competition___(regard) as a success. Many students joined it and they expressed their ideas as well.

【点拨】第①步:观察语境,找到关键词“joined”,“expressed”可首先判断出本题的时态是一般过去时;第②步:分析语境“competition”与“regard”之间为动宾关系,应用被动语态。故填was regarded。

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